When you include a direct quotation within the text of your paper, always include the author, year, and page number as part of the in-text citation. Enclose any short quotation (fewer than 40 words) in double quotation marks and incorporate it into the formal structure of the sentence. Be sure to type the close parenthesis before the punctuation mark that ends the sentence. For additional examples of in-text citations, refer to the box titled In-Text Citation Examples below.
A quotation is considered a "long" quotation if it exceeds 40 words. Follow these rules:
If you choose to omit a word or words from a quotation, indicate the deletion by using three spaced dots (an ellipsis).
If you choose to add a word or words to a quotation, indicate the insert by enclosing the additions in square brackets.
When you are referencing the AUTHOR(s) by name in your text, include author name(s) depending on number as listed below, with the date in parentheses after the name(s):
When you are not naming the AUTHOR in your text:
For additional help with in-text citations, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Chapter 6, "Crediting Sources."