NOTE: Author's names are handled differently in citations than they are within the body of your paper in any in-text citations. If you are citing more than one author in an in-text citation and need help with how to format the names, go to the In-Text Citations tab of this LibGuide.
Capitalize only the first word in book titles and subtitles (with the exception of proper names).
Journals generally have a volume number that changes at the beginning of a new year. So, for example, all issues of the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry that were published in 2009 were part of Volume 54, and issues being published in 2010 are part of Volume 55.
In addition, individual issues published during a year (or within a volume) have an issue number that usually begins with Issue 1 in January, Issue 2 in February, and so on.
Page numbering within journals varies. In some journals, each issue starts with page 1. In other journals, the pagination is continuous, so if Issue 1 started on page 1 and ended on page 78, Issue 2 would begin on page 79.
The table below gives you information about which of the above pieces of information are included in a citation. For information about the formatting of this information, refer to the tab in this LibGuide titled Articles (Print) and Articles (Electronic).
|Article Information||Included in a citation?|
|Issue number||Only if each issue begins with page 1.|
|Page number range||Always|
Include the publisher's location, as found on the title page. Place a colon after the place and then insert the publisher's name; do not include additional qualifying words (e.g., "Co.," "Inc.," etc.). Include "Press" or "Books" if used. For more information, see section 6.30 in the APA Guide.
A Uniform Resource Locator, or URL, is the address of a page or document on the Internet. Some URLs are very lengthy and may not fit on a single line of your paper. In such a case, you can break the URL so that it is on two lines. If you need to break a URL, follow these rules:
A Digital Object Identifier, or DOI, is a unique, persistent identifier assigned to digital objects like electronic versions of journal articles.
If you are creating a References page for an APA style research paper, you should include the article's DOI if it is provided in the article. The DOI is the last element of a citation, when included; insert the DOI in the format DOI:xxxxxxx.
If no DOI is provided, depending on your professor's preference, provide the URL of the journal homepage OR the name of the database used to access the article.
NOTE: If your professor requires you to locate the DOI, you can use the internet service Crossref to find it.