Using the following criteria, evaluate each of your sources while reflecting on your very specific research questions:
Consider the timeliness of the information.
Consider the importance of the information its compatibility with your research needs. You cannot evaluate for relevance without closely considering your research questions.
Consider the credibility of the information's source.
Consider the reliability, truthfulness, and correctness of the content.
Consider the reason(s) the information was created, produced, or shared.
"CRAAP Test" modified with permission by Sarah Blakeslee, Meriam Library at California State University, Chico.
See the definition of bias from the Merriam-Webster Dictionary online: Bias
Explore different kinds of cognitive biases: List of Cognitive Biases
What is the purpose of the source? (Does it inform, persuade, present opinions, report research, or sell a product?
Who is the publisher of the source? (Is it an organization, association, or company?)
Who is the intended audience of the source? (Is it for the general population or for a select group of people?)
Where is it published? (Is it local, regional, national, or international?)
Who is the author? (Is an author identified? Are any credentials listed? Is the author qualified to speak on this topic? What other topics has the author written about? Does the author belong to a partisan organization that may influence point of view?)
What is the purpose of the article? (Is it a review, commentary, editorial, informative article, research article, etc.?)
What kind of supporting material is offered? (Does the author quote research studies, statistics, or use personal anecdotes or experiences? Is logic applied when drawing conclusions? Are deceptive arguments used?)
What kind of language is used in the article? (Are inflammatory, loaded, or emotionally-charged words used?)
21st Century Information Fluency: Indicators of Bias
Citizen Source: Check out the listings of political journals and Think Tanks and Policy Institutes
AllSides: Follow the "News" or "Issues" sections to see how individual news stories and sources are rated on a range or liberal, center, or conservative.
When trying to determine if an article would be considered "scholarly," look at the following characteristics:
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Helpful guides to citation styles:
If you need to write an annotated bibliography, use the evaluation criteria as part of your annotation. For more on annotated bibliographies, visit our research guide: