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APA Style (7th ed.): APA Style Highlights

DOI (Digital Object Identifier)

DOI Tools

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a unique number assigned to electronic content, and should be part of your APA citation when available.

DOI Lookup:

In a Nutshell

  • Almost every source can be a website.

  • Titles of webpages, books, reports, dissertations, films and other stand-alone works are italicized in the References page. For in-depth use of italics see APA tutorial.

  • Do not add the line breaks manually in the DOI or URLs.

  • Make links blue and underlined (live hyperlinks) or black font (no underline).

  • For online sources, ask yourself, "what type of work (e.g., book, webpage, report) is on this webpage?" and then, find a reference that is similar to the work you want to cite using the most relevant example.

Deciphering Citations from a Database

Translating a Citation Retrieved from a Database:
undefined Find and track a citation (see example of a citation from a library database):



Format the citation into a reference according to the APA Style, 7th edition guidelines:

Hamdani, M. R. (2018). Learning how to be a transformational leader through a skill-building, role-play exercise. The International Journal of Management Education,16(1), 26-36.

Parenthetical citation: (Hamdani, 2018)
Narrative citation: Hamdani (2018)

Citing Journal Articles by Author(s)