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Bluebook Quick Reference: Abbreviations and How-tos

Law Review Citations v. Citation in Briefs


When writing a law review article, insert citations as FOOTNOTES. Do not insert the citation into the text, like when you are writing a brief.  (Although on occasion it may be appropriate to cite to a case in the text.)

For this class, it is best to use parallel citations. If you are not using parallel citations, select the reporter as specified in Bluebook table 1. For this example, it is the Northeastern Reporter, N.E.2d.

General Bluebook Hints

  • The Bluebook has different formats for law review footnotes vs. briefs, court documents and legal memos.
  • The INSIDE FRONT COVER of the Bluebook provides some quick examples of Bluebook format used when writing law review footnotes (ie. law review articles and ULWR papers).
  • The Blue colored pages in the front on the Bluebook are for Brief format, while the White pages that follow them are for law review footnote format.
  • The major difference between citation formats for Law Review Footnotes vs. Court Documents and Legal Memoranda is the typeface.  For example, 

Citing to Law Review Articles

Bluebook Rule 16


Bernadette Bollas Genetin,The Supreme Court's New Approach to Personal Jurisdiction, 68 SMU L. Rev. 107, 110 (2015).

•Title as it appears on the title page
•T10 and T13 to abbreviate names of periodicals.  Name of periodical in large/small caps.
If you find a law review article on the internet, you can use this format.  Do not just put the title of the article and the url!

Citing to Books

Rule 15 - Books


Matthew J. Wilson, Hiroshi Fukurai &  Takashi Maruta, Japan and Civil Jury Trials: The Convergence of Forces 45 (2015).

  • et. al. can be used instead of listing all the authors
  • Author and Title in LARGE and small caps.
  • Only include publisher if not original publisher

Some books have special citation formats, example:

17 Am. Jur. 2d  Contracts § 74 (2017).

Short Citation Form

Rule 4.1 Id.

Use Id.

  • When citing to the immediately preceding footnote within the same footnote OR
  • When citing to the cite in the immediately preceding footnote and there are no other citations in the preceding footnote

Rule 4.2 Short Forms

•Use supra for books, law review articles
•Do NOT use supra for cases, statutes, Constitutions, regulations
•Use Id. if appropriate (R. 4.1), otherwise can use supra

1 Matthew J. Wilson, Hiroshi Fukurai &  Takashi Maruta, Japan and Civil Jury Trials: The Convergence of Forces 45 (2015).

2 Id. at 203.

30 Wilson, et al., supra note 1.

Short Citation Form for CASES - Rule 10.9

•Use if case cited in same footnote or in one of preceding 5 footnotes


1 Brown v. Helvering, 291 U.S. 193, 203 (1934).

2 Id. 

3 United States v. Wilson, 503 U.S. 329 (1992).

4 Brown, 291 U.S. at 203.

Citing to Web Sites

Bluebook requires citing to the print unless:

  • Print difficult/impossible to find, OR
  • Electronic is authentic, official or exact copy (pdf) of print source.   See R. 18.2
  • newspapers: online versions can be used to replace print.  R.16.6(f)

When citing to a website, you do not need the URL if:  

•Authentic, official or exact copy (pdf).  (State authentic, official)
•Cite as if to original print source – R. 18.2.1
Items on the web with print characteristics (such as a pdf):
You can cite using another bluebook rule AND append the URL. R. 18.2.1b2
Citations to Internet Sources R. 18.2.2
  • Author, Title (indicates location of page in relation to rest of the website), Main Page Title (Date, time), url.
  • If no date, put (last visited date) after the url:


Sentencing Reform, Am. Civ. Liberties Union, (last visited Feb. 14, 2017).

Collateral Consequences Resource Ctr., (last visited Feb. 14, 2017).

Reuters, Trump Questions Lawmakers’ Efforts to Curb Asset Seizures by Police, N.Y. Times, (Feb. 7, 2017, 2:57 PM),

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