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The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) is one of the main resources for educational data. This information is highly trustworthy and authoritative in nature. The NCES describes itself as the "primary federal entity for collecting and analyzing data related to education in the U.S. and other nations. NCES is located within the U.S. Department of Education and the Institute of Education Sciences. NCES fulfills a Congressional mandate to collect, collate, analyze, and report complete statistics on the condition of American education; conduct and publish reports; and review and report on education activities internationally" (https://nces.ed.gov/about/).
The NCES website has many different data sets which may be able to answer your educational data questions. The following are some of the commonly used and important data sets collected by the NCES.
IPEDS data is based on surveys sent out to Higher Education organizations with students who receive federal financial aid. Information such as finances, faculty, programs, and much more is collected annually.
The Digest of Education Statistics is a compilation of data from many sources, both public and private, that cover all areas of education in the U.S. including education attainment, libraries, federal funding, and more.
Data-Planet is a database full of many data sets from multiple sources. Data-Planet is a great resource to use to locate, obtain, visualize, and compare data and variables. Data-Planet can be overwhelming for new users. Please contact me (Education liasion - Sean Kennedy, email@example.com) for assistance!
This database contains historical data on areas of life in the U.S. Topics cover many areas of education including earnings by education level and demographics of schools. Tip: Education data is rooted under "Part B - Work and Welfare."