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Computer Engineering: Using a Citation Style

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Citation Style Manuals

Citing an Image

Images should have a credit line at the end of the caption, where parentheses are optional. If citing the source as a whole, use an in-text citation at the end of the credit line; otherwise, the citation should be contained in the credit line. If the reproduction of a copyrighted image is not fair use, you would need to obtain permission from the copyright holder to use it. Either way, do not forget to cite it.

In-Text Citation Placement

The most common citation is paraphrasing a sentence from a reference.

Darwin believes the strongest will survive [1].

The ideas of others are intermingled with your ideas and maybe some ideas of others.

Darwin believes the strongest will survive [1]. This concept is shown each day when traveling on the interstate. According to George Carlin [2], driving is judged upon your current speed. Slower drivers are idiots and faster drivers are maniacs [2]. As difficult as it is to admit, a fair amount of drivers would find me to be an idiot.

Occasionally, there are cases where it is appropriate to paraphrase a paragraph in order to fully explain the idea of the reference. When doing so, make it completely clear in your document that the entire paragraph is cited — not just the last sentence containing the citation. Some writers place the citation at the beginning and others at the end of the paragraph.


[1]C. Darwin, On the Origin of Species. London,UK: Down, Bromley, Kent, 1859.
[2]G. Carlin, Napalm & Silly Putty. New York, NY, USA : Hyperion, 2002, pp. 4-5.

IEEE Style Example


The following excerpts are taken from The Public Domain and Democracy [1], which is no longer protected by copyright. This book is public domain and can be obtained from Google Books. Google's Terms of Service [2] contains terms and conditions regarding use. The text from paragraph one and two begin on page 16. The text from paragraph three and four begin on page 25 and 28, respectively. The text from Chapter V begins on page 120 and the text from Chapter VII begins on page 171.

Chapter I
The Westward Movement:

The start having been made, population soon began, at the close of the Revolution, to flow in a strong current to the West. Now and then there were eddies and stretches of back-water in the stream but it has been mainly with a mighty sweep that population has thrust itself to the frontier and then into the territory beyond. American history can largely be written in terms of this expansion movement. Aside from foreign immigration, this western movement came from the seaboard and from settled regions directly to the rear of the real frontier. Each successive generation had been irresistibly drawn to the new western lands. The movement has always been dominated latitudinal. Population in general has taken the straight course from East to West to reach western lands opening to settlement and to profit by the many economic opportunities which the new country offered. Miss Semple indicates admirable the factors determining the direction of the movement [3]. The population advance has been generally along lines of least resistance — mainly along drainage basins and river courses — striking out overland when it was found advantageous various forms — and new means and directions of transportation were developed, men moved along lines generally determined by the topography of the country.

In order to lay a foundation or present a background for this study of land distribution, occupation and settlement in their relation to problems of democracy a brief survey of the settlement of the West is desirable.

From 1840 to 1850 the westward movement became even more intensified. It now began to dominate the whole Mississippi Valley and had pushed to the Missouri River across Iowa. Iowa was admitted to the union as a state and also Wisconsin. Minnesota was erected as a separate territory and out of the great newly annexed western territories came Texas as a state and New Mexico and Oregon as territories. The marvelous extent of democratic land occupation may be indicated by the increase of Wisconsin population from 31,000 in 1840 to 305,000 in 1850, with 57,608 different families occupying 56,316 permanent dwellings [4].

In this description of western advance decade by decade may be observed the different frontiers which Professor Turner Describes: ''Western occupation advanced in a series of waves: the Indian was sought by the fur-trader; the fur-trader was followed by the frontiersman, whose cattle exploited the natural grasses and the acorns of the forest; next came the wave of primitive agriculture, followed by the more intensive farming and the city life. All the stages of social development went on under the eye of the traveler as he passed from the frontier toward the East'' [5].

Democracy in Western Political Life:

The early purpose of the grange was that of improving the lot of the farmer through education but a reading of grange session reports makes it quite apparent that discussion was very often directed against middle-men's profits, excessive railroad rates, transportation monopoly, monopoly in any form, land-holding by aliens, land-holding and speculation by corporations, and legislation thought to be directly subversive of the farmers' interests and prompted in large part, it was charged, by interested corporations. According to Morgan the real cause of the Agricultural Wheel's organization in 1882 in Arkansas was monopoly. It seemed to take the form there especially of oppressive mortgages and of disadvantageous trade and general economic conditions against which the Arkansas farmer rebelled [6].


Individualism and the Public Domain:

Until recently, the country has thought that a gift of land — mineral, agricultural or forest — cost the government nothing; on the other hand was of great value to the recipient [7]. Mineral lands that have sold at ridiculously low prices certainly have been and are of great value to the recipients, hence the great private holdings of coal and iron and other mineral lands. With the West comparatively underdeveloped as it is, President Roosevelt, in a Congressional message in 1907, called attention to the fact that already probably one-half of the total area of high-grade coals had passed under private control, and that including lignite deposits these private holdings would aggregate not less than 30,000,000 acres of coal fields. He also called attention to the claim that so large a part of the coal in some of the western states had already passed into the hands of certain large corporations that private parties who would be willing to operate under a leasing system advocated by himself and others would have great difficulties to compete. Moody cites President Schwab as testifying before the Industrial Commission that the following properties were owned, controlled or represented by the United States Steel Corporation: Iron and Bessemer ore properties, value $7,000,000,000; coal and coke fields, (87,589 acres) value 100,000,000; natural gas fields, value $20,000,000; limestone properties, value $4,000,000 [8]. Again, testifying before the Commission, President Schwab averred that the corporation controlled 80 percent of the great iron-ore supplied of the Northwest. These ores, he said, are nearly altogether used for steel products in the United States [9].


Closing Notes:

Patents by Kelly [10], Bessemer [11], and Mushet contributed to the Bessimer Process that enable cheap steel making. Mushet's patent became public property due to non-payment of fees; thus, Bessimer was able to correct an early problem with his method by freely using Mushet's patent [12]. Normally, more detail would be provided here. I wrote this paragraph to illustrate how to cite patents and a book chapter.


[1]R. T. Hill, The Public Domain and Democracy. New York, NY, USA: Columbia University, 1910.
[2]Google, Mountain View, CA, USA, "Terms of Service." opens new window (accessed Dec. 29, 2014).

[3]E. C. Semple, American History and its Geographic Conditions. Boston, MA, USA: Houghton, Miffin, 1903.
[4]J. Ferris, The States and Territories of the Great West. New York, NY, USA: Miller, Orton, & Mulligan,1856, pp. 219-220.
[5]F. J. Turner, "The colonization of the West, 1820-1830," Amer. Hist. Rev., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 303-327, Nov. 1906.
[6]W. S. Morgan, History of the Wheel and Alliance and the Impending Revolution. Hardy, AR, USA: published by author, 1889, p. 56.
[7]A. B. Hart, "Disposition of our public lands," Quart. J. Econ., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 169-183, Feb. 1887.
[8]J. Moody, The Truth about the Trusts. New York, NY, USA: Moody Publishing Co., 1904, p. 164.
[9]A. Clarke, "Report of the Industrial Commission on Trusts and Industrial Combinations," U.S. Ind. Comm., Washington DC, USA, 1901, p. 471.
[10]W. Kelly, "Manufacture of iron and steel," U.S. Patent 17 628, Jun. 23, 1857.
[11]H. Bessemer, "Improvement in the manufacture of iron and steel," U.S. Patent 16 082, Nov. 11, 1856.
[12]K. C. Barraclough, "Bessemer and the development of the pneumatic process," in Steelmaking: 1850-1900. London, UK: Inst. Metals, 1990, pp. 39-55.

Note: Google terms and conditions opens new window when selected.

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