IMPORTANT: The samples in this guide are similar and do not exactly follow the CSE style guidelines. The formatting for citing sources is recommended for this course only.
Best wishes in your studies, Marilia (Librarian for Biology)
Boolean Operators: AND, OR
AND: use the word AND to retrieve results that contain only the terms specified.
Example: crayfish AND agonistic AND size (Note: you will retrieve fewer results than when you use OR)
OR: use the word OR to retrieve results that return one search term or the other (that is, either or both). Use for synonyms or related terms!
Example: agonistic OR fighting OR defensive behavior (Note: you will retrieve more results than when you use AND)
When using OR, enclose the terms in parentheses ( ) Example: (agonistic OR fighting OR defensive behavior)
A AND B A OR B
TOO MANY Results/Not Relevant --Try This:
TOO FEW Results/Not Relevant --Try This:
CONCEPT THREE (YOUR CHOICE) - see example
Then combine the terms (your choice--don't have to use all of them):
Type this in the database's search box (This is an example!):
("agonistic behavior" OR fighting OR aggress*) AND ("body appendages injury" OR injur* OR "limb loss" OR "behavioral impairments" OR "loss of appendage" OR "limb damage") AND (Crayfish OR crustacean OR "decapod crustacean" OR "Procambarus clarkii" OR Crawdads OR Crawfish OR "freshwater lobsters")