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APA Style (7th ed.): Citing Online Resources

Introduction and examples of commonly cited works in APA Style, 7th Edition

Examples of Commonly Used Clinical Resources

Sample Reference:

PDR.net. (n.d.). Ondansetron hydrochloride [Drug information]. https://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Ondansetron-ondansetron-hydrochloride-3428.2904

How to cite the work by a group author in-text:

  • Parenthetical citation: (PDR.net, n.d.)
  • Narrative citation: PDR.net (n.d.)

Guideline from a journal article:

Nahid, P., Mase, S. R., Migliori, G. B., Sotgiu, G., Bothamley, G. H., Brozek, J. L., Cattamanchi, A., Cegielski, J. P., Chen, L., Daley, C. L., Dalton, T. L., Duarte, R., Fregonese, F., Horsburgh, C. R., Jr, Ahmad Khan, F., Kheir, F., Lan, Z., Lardizabal, A., Lauzardo, M., Mangan, J. M., … Seaworth, B. (2019). Treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis. An official ATS/CDC/ERS/IDSA clinical practice guideline (American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 200, No. 10). American Thoracic Society. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201909-1874ST

How to cite the work by 21 or more authors in-text:

  • Parenthetical citation: (Nahid et al., 2019)
  • Narrative citation: Nahid et al. (2019)

Research instruments are tools "used to collect, measure, and analyze data related to your subject." They can be in the form of questionnaires, surveys, tests, scales, or even checklists. 

  • Remember to capitalize the title of the instrument. For example, Professional Quality of Life Scale, version 5 (ProQual-5)

Example of an entire research instrument found in a journal article:

Buysse, D., Reynolds, C., Monk, T., Berman, S., & Kupfer, D. (1989). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Research, 28(2),193-213. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(89)90047-4

How to cite the work by three or more authors in-text:

  • Parenthetical citation: (Buysse et al., 1989)
  • Narrative citation: Buysse et al. (1989)

NOTE: If you plan to publish your paper, permission to use questionnaires/surveys/tests or other research instruments is required. Refer to pp. 384-386 of the Publication Manual, 7th edition.

Example of an entire research instrument found freely on a website:

Stamm, B. H. (2015). ProQOL.org. https://proqol.org/ProQol_Test.html

 

How to cite the work by one author in-text:

  • Parenthetical citation: (Stamm, 2015)
  • Narrative citation: Stamm (2015)

Webpages and Other Online Resources

Example of an archived webpage or a blog post (includes specific date). The name of the blog takes the place of the author and the parent government agency is in the place of a publisher:

Military OneSource. (2020, February 13). Becoming a new father while you’re deployed. U.S. Department of Defense. https://www.militaryonesource.mil/about-us/

Parenthetical citation: (Military OneSource, 2020)
Narrative citation: Military OneSource (2020)

Reports

  • The title of the report is in italics.
  • If a report is from a proprietary/subscription database and not found in other resources, include the name of the database or archive. 
  • Include  the URL of the database home page or login page.

Report from an organization (group author): 

United Nations Children's Fund. (2020). Build to last: A framework in support of universal quality pre-primary education. https://www.unicef.org/media/67191/file/Build-to-last-framework-universal-quality-pre-primary-education.pdf

Parenthetical citation: 
(United Nations Children's Fund [UNICEF], 2020) first cite; (UNICEF, 2020) thereafter


Narrative citation:

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF, 2020) first cite; UNICEF (2020) thereafter

Business report authored by author, from proprietary database: 

Smith, D. (2020, September). Changing retail landscape: Incl impact of COVID-19 – US. Mintel. https://www.mintel.com

Parenthetical citation: (Smith, 2020)

Narrative citation: Smith (2020)

Fact sheet from an organization (group author): 

  • Cite fact sheets and reports using the same format, except that fact sheets must include the description “[Fact sheet]” in square brackets after the title of the fact sheet.
  • The most specific government agency is listed in the place of the authorInclude the parent agency in the source element, usually before the URL. See Section 10.4 of the Publication Manual.

World Health Organization. (2019). Children: Reducing mortality [Fact sheet]. https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/children-reducing-mortality

Webpage on a news website (online news sources such as CNN, Reuters, BBC News):

Caspani, M. (2020, September 18). New Jersey governor signs law aimed at protecting poor from pollution. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-environment-new-jersey- idUSKBN2692FL

Online newspaper from a newspaper database:

Livingston, D. (2015, January 4). Teachers' diversity lags students' as percentage of Hispanic, multiracial kids grows, instructor still is most likely white. Akron Beacon Journal, p. A1.

Press release:

Ohio Department of Education. (2020, September 15). Ohio Department of Education Releases Abbreviated 2020 School Report Cards [Press release]. http://education.ohio.gov/Media/Media-Releases/Ohio-Department-of-Education-Releases-Abbreviated#.X2e_AdZ7ns1

Government Documents

Government Documents SUMMARY:

  • If date available, use the specific date, not just year of publication.
  • Titles of webpages, reports, and other stand-alone works are italicized.
  • The first word in a title is capitalized including proper names, acronyms, and abbreviations.
  • In general, if there are multiple government agencies, use the most specific agency as the author of the reference. The parent (larger) agency is included as the source element or as the publisher when it appears on the webpage only.
  • TIP: Look for the "recommended citation" (usually not formatted in APA Style) within the documents, when available, to help with identifying key agency or agencies, agency as author, or personal authors.

Examples of government webpages authored by an agency, parent agency also appears on page, with specific updated date (as opposed to a reviewed date): 

Example 1:

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2017, September 15). Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://www.samhsa.gov/sbirt

Parenthetical citation:
(
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration [SAMHSA], 2017) first cite; (SAMHSA, 2017) thereafter
Narrative citation:
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA, 2017) first cite; SAMHSA (2017) thereafter

 

Example 2: 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, May 21). Considerations for institutes of higher education. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/colleges-universities/considerations.html

Parenthetical citation:

 

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2020) first cite;
 

(CDC, 2020) thereafter
 

 

Narrative citation:

 

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2010) first cite;
 

(CDC, 2020) thereafter

Example of a document by subagency with parent agency in publisher position (p. 329), published as part of a series (p. 330), with publication No., and the year the document was last updated

Example 1:

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2009). TIP 50, Addressing suicidal thoughts and behaviors in substance abuse treatment (Treatment Improvement Protocol [TIP] Series, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 13-4793). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://store.samhsa.gov/sites/default/files/d7/priv/sma13-4793.pdf 

Parenthetical citation:
(
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration [SAMHSA], 2009) first cite; (SAMHSA, 2009) thereafter
Narrative citation:
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA, 2009) first cite; SAMHSA (2009) thereafter