Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

APA Style (7th ed.): References and In-Text Citations

Introduction and examples of commonly cited works in APA Style, 7th Edition

Building a Reference

For full information on formatting author names in your reference list, see sections 9.7-9.12 of the Publication Manual.

  • Authors are listed by last name and initial(s) (e.g. Watson, J. H.).
  • If there is more than one author, use commas to separate their names. 
  • For two to 20 authors, use an ampersand (&) before the last author.
  • If there are 20 or fewer authors, you must list out all of the authors.
  • If there are 21 or more authors, you must list out the first 19, add an ellipsis, and then list the last author's name.
  • If there is no author, move the title to the author position, before the date of publication.

For full information on formatting publication dates in you reference list, see sections 9.13-9.17 of the Publication Manual.

  • Dates are listed in parentheses followed by a period.
  • For books, use the date listed on the copyright page.
  • For journal articles, use the date of the volume.
  • For webpages and websites, make sure that the date applies specifically to the content you are using.
  • If a work has no date, list the date element as (n.d.). 

For full information on formatting titles in your reference list, see sections 9.18-9.22 of the Publication Manual.

The Essentials

  • Use sentence case capitalization for titles.
  • For most titles in periodicals (e.g., journal, magazine, newspapers), omit articles (e.g., "The", "A"). Some exception include The New York Times, The Washington Post,...

More Details

  • For references that have additional title/identifying information (e.g. edition, volume, etc.), place any additional information in parentheses after the title of the reference. Separate multiple pieces of information with commas.
  • If your reference doesn't have a title, put a description of the work in square brackets in the title section.

For full information on formatting source information in your reference list, see sections 9.23-9.37 of the Publication Manual.

  • For books, include the publisher's name as well as any applicable DOIs or URLs.
  • For journal articles, include the journal's information (i.e. title, volume, issue, and page or article numbers) as well as any applicable DOIs or URLs.
  • For social media posts, include the site name and the URL.
  • For websites and webpages, include the website name and the URL.
  • If your reference doesn't have a source, you can't include it in the reference list.

NOTE: If your reference contains a URL, make sure that the URL works and that it points directly to the reference.

Creating In-Text Citations

This APA video (recorded on July 2020) covers in-depth information on how to:
1) Create and format in-text citations for all types of print and online works
2) Integrate source material into a paper, and
3) Cite at an appropriate level

Creating In-Text Citations

Citation Generators:

1) Citation Builder:


Creating References